Pest Library

Ant, Cockroach, Rodent, Snake, Mosquito, Subterranean Termite, Bedbug, Bee/ Hornet, House Fly


  • Ant undergoes complete metamorphosis, and there are 4 different stages in process of development, namely egg, larva, pupa and adult.
  • Life cycle from egg to adulthood normally takes about 2-3 months for most urban pest ant species.
  • An ant colony mainly consists of 4 castes: queen, worker, female, and male. The most common sighted caste is worker.

Interesting facts

Ant is the strongest creature in relation to its size, whereby it can carry load 10 to 20 times its body weight!


  • The two most common species of cockroach in Singapore are American cockroach and German cockroach.
  • American cockroach is the predominant one in residential premises, while German cockroach was highly prevalent in food preparation outlets.
  • Cockroaches are nocturnal and tend to congregate in corners and generally travel along edges of wall or other surfaces.

Interesting Facts

Fossil evidence suggests that cockroach have existed for more than 300 million years. In recent studies, a total of 59 bacteria species were isolated from local cockroach sample.


  • Three species of rodents was commonly found in Singapore, namely Norway rat, Roof rat, and House mouse.
  • They are responsible for enormous loses by consuming and contaminating food products, damaging belongings and properties, and spreading diseases.
  • Besides droppings, other common signs of rodent infestation include urine stains, smear marks, gnaw marks and sound.

Interesting Facts

Rodents become sexually mature and start mating at age of 8-12 weeks old. After giving birth, they can be in heat and become pregnant in as little as 48 hours.


  • There is approximately 160 species of terrestrial and marine snakes in Peninsula Malaysia and Singapore.
  • The dangerously venomous land snakes in Singapore includes King cobra, Equatorial spitting cobra, Banded krait, Malayan blue coral snake, Striped coral snake, Mangrove pit viper and Wagler’s pit viper.

Interesting Facts

Reticulated python is non-venomous snake. It kills prey by constriction and it is the largest snake species native to Asia.


  • Mosquito goes through four stages in its life cycle: egg, larva pupa and adult. The first three stages are generally aquatic.
  • Only female mosquitoes suck blood, as they need blood meal as source of protein for egg development.
  • The female saliva contains an anti coagulant that lets her more easily suck up her meal. The saliva induces an allergic response from her victim’s immune system; That is why your skin gets itchy bumps.

Interesting Facts

Dengue mosquito eggs can withstand desiccation up to six months. Hence the eggs are still able to hatch when reintroduced with water.

Subterranean Termite

  • Termites are broadly divided into three major groups: subterranean, drywood and dampwood termites.
  • Mud tubes and weaken wood structures are common signs of subterranean termite infestation.
  • The queen of subterranean termite can live up to 30 years depending on species.

Interesting Facts

The soldiers and workers of the termite colony are blind. Soldier termite will make clicking sound by knocking their large mandibles on the wood structure when disturbed, as a form of communication.


  • As the name implies, bedbug is most commonly found on beds where a readily available blood source awaits.
  • One of the infestation signs is black, red and white cream spots on mattress. These spottings are faecal traces of bed bugs which consists of digested blood.
  • Bedbugs are not confined just to areas where people sleep. They can also be found at luggage, carpet, curtains, power points, and many other locations.

Interesting Facts

Bedbugs can survive without blood meal for 6-9 months, and they are attracted to their host’s carbon dioxide and heat emitted.

Bee / Wasp/ Hornet

  • Bee has barb on their stinger, hence they will most likely die after stinging their victim, as part of their abdomen where also left behind with the stinger.
  • Hornet does not have barb on their stinger, allowing them to sting victim for multiple times. Ouch!
  • The life span of a honey bee varies by the role of an individual within the colony, and they live as sophisticated and well-organized society.

Interesting Facts

Each honey bee colony has unique odour for member identification, and male honey bees do not have stinger.

House Fly

  • Housefly only has a pair of wings, the hind pair was reduced to halteres, which aid in flight stability.
  • Each female can lay up to 100 eggs per batch, and the eggs will hatch into maggots within a day.

Interesting Facts

The fly has 4000 separate lenses in each eye, 8000 in all. They provide wide angle vision which is in fact omnidirectional.

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